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What is an Abstract & an Annotated Bibliography?


A brief summary of the research contents 
Provides quick information about the topic including problem, methodology, participants (if any),  findings, and conclusion.  
Qualities of a good abstract:

  • Accurate 
  • Non-evaluative 
  • Coherent and readable 
    • Active Voice 
    • Present verb tense to describe conclusions 
    • Past verb tense to describe specific variables manipulates or outcomes measures
  • Concise 

Annotated Bibliography 

An annotated bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, websites, periodicals, etc.). An annotated bibliography includes a summary and/ or evaluation of each other sources. Depending on the assignment, your annotation may do one or more of the following:

  • Summarize
  • Assess 
  • Reflect

Annotated bibliographies are useful when organizing sources for research projects. 


Additional Resources 

Abstract Annotated Bibliography 

Tips That Will Make Your Abstract a Success! 

  • Wordvice is your one-stop shop for English proofreading and editing services.

Abstract Tips and Tools 

  • The Writing Center at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill constructed an Abstracts: Tips and Tools handout.

How to Write an Abstract

  • Verywell mind is your source for reliable, understandable information on hundreds of health and wellness topics that always keeps the reasons you come to us in mind. 

Annotated Bibliography Samples 

  • Purdue Online Writing Lab 

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography     

  • A video tutorial from the University of Maryland, University College Library